History’s Worst Nuclear Disasters

Nuclear Disasters turns the area into uninhabitable place unlivable to humans for thousands of years because of the radiation. List of nuclear power accidents by country

History’s Worst Nuclear Disasters

As experts scramble to stem the mounting crisis in Japan, we take a look at four of the most devastating nuclear accidents to date.


Chernobyl (April 26, 1986)

Chernobyl will be uninhabitable for at least 3,000 years, says nuclear experts

https://www.csmonitor.com/World/Global-News/2016/0424/Chernobyl-will-be-unhabitable-for-at-least-3-000-years-say-nuclear-experts


Photo Source: https://www.slideshare.net/yaryalitsa/powerpoint-ernobyl-years-after-the-nuclear-disaster-26-april-1986-26-april-2016

Built in the late 1970s about 65 miles north of Kiev in the Ukraine, the Chernobyl plant was one of the largest and oldest nuclear power plants in the world. The explosion and subsequent meltdown that occurred there in April 1986 would claim thousands of lives, cause countless birth defects and unleash a thyroid cancer epidemic on the region. However, it would take years for the full story behind the catastrophe to emerge. A bungled experiment at one of the facility’s four reactors created a sudden power surge, which in turn led to a series of blasts that blew the 1,000-ton steel top off of the reactor. A lethal cloud of radioactive material gathered over the nearby town of Pripyat—which was not evacuated until 36 hours after the explosion—before wafting over large parts of Europe. Soviet officials tried to keep the disaster under wraps, but on April 28 Swedish radiation monitoring stations located more than 800 miles from Chernobyl reported radiation levels 40 percent higher than normal.

In the opening days of the crisis, 32 people died at Chernobyl and dozens more suffered radiation burns. The radiation that escaped into the atmosphere–equivalent to several times that produced by the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki–contaminated millions of acres of forest and farmland. The full human toll from the calamity is still being tallied, but experts believe that thousands of people died and as many as 70,000 suffered severe poisoning. In addition, a large area of land may not be livable for as much as 150 years, including the 18-mile radius around Chernobyl–home to some 150,000 people who had to be permanently relocated. In 2000, the last working reactors at Chernobyl were shut down and the plant was officially closed.


Kyshtym (September 29, 1957)

Photo Source: https://www.tellerreport.com/news/2019-07-24---on-the-banks-of-the-radioactive-river--how-people-live-in-the-area-of-%E2%80%8B%E2%80%8Bthe-kyshtym-nuclear-disaster-.ByblRf9SzS.html

In the years following World War II, the Soviet Union constructed dozens of covert facilities—many of them hastily and shoddily built—in an effort to strengthen their nuclear arsenal. One of these, the Mayak nuclear fuel processing plant in the Russian town of Ozyorsk, became the site of a major disaster when the cooling system in a waste storage tank failed, causing the dried radioactive material it contained to overheat and explode. A plume of deadly particles swelled above Ozyorsk and the surrounding region, eventually spanning some 300 square miles. A full week passed before the affected zone’s 10,000 residents were evacuated; because the plant was shrouded in secrecy, they received no explanation for their abrupt and permanent resettlement. By that time, reports had surfaced of mysterious ailments, including people’s skin sloughing off from exposed body parts.

Instead of acknowledging what had happened in the disaster’s aftermath, the Soviet government created the East-Ural Nature Reserve in the contaminated area and prohibited unauthorized access to it. In 1979, the Russian biologist and dissident Zhores Medvedev made waves by exposing the accident’s lasting effects, but it was not until 1990 that reports documenting the event were declassified. According to estimates, 200 people died of cancer because of exposure to radiation, and thousands more may have suffered from related illnesses. The Mayak incident has come to be associated with the nearby town of Kyshtym because Ozyorsk did not appear on any official maps at the time.

Three Mile Island (March 28, 1979)

Photo Source: https://u.osu.edu/engr2367nuclearpower/three-mile-island/

The most serious nuclear accident in U.S. history took place at the Three Mile Island plant near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, a brand-new facility lauded for its state-of-the-art design, efficiency and affordability during an era of energy crises. It began when a pressure valve in one of the reactors failed to close, allowing cooling water–contaminated with radiation–to drain into adjoining buildings. Control room operators made critical errors as they struggled to contain the crisis, and by early morning the core had heated to over 4,000 degrees–just 1,000 degrees short of meltdown. As radioactive steam began pouring out of the plant, word of the incident leaked to the outside world. The plant’s parent company downplayed the event, claiming that no radiation had been detected off plant grounds, but within days radiation levels were elevated over a four-county zone. Pennsylvania Governor Richard Thornburgh ordered the evacuation of pregnant women and small children from the area.

On March 31, plant workers were able to address the problems and ended the threat of a meltdown. Although no deaths or injuries were reported, there has been an ongoing controversy over whether the radiation released at Three Mile Island led to increased cancer and infant mortality rates in the region. The incident also eroded the American public’s faith in nuclear power, inspiring many demonstrations, and increased awareness of the need for emergency preparedness at the state and local levels.

Windscale (October 10, 1957)

Watch Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qanwZ6iG5Gw

Designed to produce plutonium and other materials for the country’s burgeoning nuclear weapons program, Britain’s first nuclear reactor, known as Windscale, was built in northwest England in the late 1940s. On October 10, 1957, workers conducting standard maintenance at the massive facility noticed rising temperatures. Upon further inspection, they discovered that the reactor’s uranium-filled graphite core had caught fire. Worse, it had likely been ablaze for two days, releasing dangerous contaminants into the atmosphere. With the reactor on the verge of collapse, plant operators risked their lives to fight the flames with cooling fans, carbon dioxide and water. The fire finally died out on October 12, but by that time a radioactive cloud was already spreading across the United Kingdom and Europe.

While no evacuations occurred, officials prohibited the sale of milk from the affected area for roughly a month. Scientists estimate that, over the long term, radioactive fallout from the Windscale fire may have caused some 240 cases of cancer. An inquiry that began within days of the accident concluded that the blaze had been both avoidable and mishandled. The complete report was suppressed for several decades, however, in part because it may have compromised Britain’s efforts to cooperate with the United States on nuclear weapons development.


Source: https://www.history.com/news/historys-worst-nuclear-disasters


Fukushima Daiichi, Japan


The meltdown at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant on 11th March 2011, is one of the worst nuclear disasters in the world history. While it was classified as Level 5 on the seven-point International Nuclear Events Scale (INES), later it was escalated to Level 7 due to high amounts of radiations.

The accident which occurred following a huge earthquake and a 15-metre tsunami left over a million people displaced. While the number of direct deaths from the incident are estimated to be zero, around 1,600 people died due to stress and evacuation procedures.


Source: https://www.scoopwhoop.com/news/most-disastrous-nuclear-accidents-in-world-history/


Related Articles:


11 Nuclear Meltdowns and Disasters

Click Link to read: https://www.cnbc.com/2011/03/16/11-Nuclear-Meltdowns-and-Disasters.html



List of nuclear power accidents by country


Belgium

This list is incomplete. See also Laka Foundation's list of recent nuclear and radiological incidents in Belgium.[11]

Nuclear power accidents in Belgium[11]DateLocationDescriptionFatalitiesCost

(in millions

2006 US$)INES

rating2002Tihange, Belgium"Safety injection during hot shutdown at Tihange 2 unit".[12][13]22005Tihange, Belgium"Inadequate protection relays and related setpoints".[14][11]22006Fleurus, Belgium"Severe health effects for a worker at a commercial irradiation facility as a result of high doses of radiation".[15]42008Fleurus, BelgiumIodine-131 release in the environment.[16]32011Doel, Belgium"Inadequate setting of the auxiliary feedwater turbopump".[17]2

Canada

Nuclear power accidents in Canada[18][19]DateLocationDescriptionFatalitiesCost

(in millions

2006 US$)INES

ratingDecember 12, 1952CRL, Ontario, CanadaThe NRX accident. A hydrogen explosion occurred in the reactor core due to a cascade of malfunctions and operator errors. The world's first major nuclear reactor accident.[20]0See NRX accident5[21][22]May 24, 1958CRL, Ontario, CanadaThe NRU accident. A fuel rod caught fire and broke when removed, then dispersed fission products and alpha-emitting particles in the reactor building.0See NRU accident.November 1978WR-1 Reactor at Pinawa, Manitoba, CanadaLOCA loss of coolant accident. 2,739 litres of coolant oil leaked, most of it into the Winnipeg River. The repair took several weeks for workers to complete.[23]0UnknownAugust 1, 1983Pickering nuclear Reactor 2, Pickering, Ontario, CanadaLOCA loss of coolant accident. Pressure tube, that holds the fuel bundles, ruptured due to hydriding. All four reactors re-tubed with new materials (Zr-2.5%Nb) over ten years.[24]01 billion Canadian dollars (1983-1993).[25]March 1986Bruce nuclear Reactor 2, Bruce County, Ontario, CanadaLOCA Loss of coolant accident. Pressure tube rupture during pressurizing test (reactor shut down). Pressure tube holds the fuel bundles.[26]0UnknownAugust 2, 1992Pickering nuclear Reactor 1, Pickering, Ontario, CanadaA Heavy water leak of 2300 trillion becquerels of radioactive tritium into Lake Ontario, resulting in increased levels of tritium in Toronto drinking water .[27]0Unknown.December 10, 1994Pickering nuclear Reactor 2, Pickering, Ontario, CanadaLOCA loss of coolant accident. A spill of 185 tonnes of heavy water. The Emergency Core Cooling System was used to prevent a meltdown.[28]0Unknown.2[29]June 11, 2002Bruce nuclear Reactor 6, Bruce B station. Bruce County, Ontario, CanadaPressure tube and calandria tube damage during a channel maintenance procedure, required replacement of the two tubes.[26]0Unknown0[29]December 21, 2009Darlington nuclear station. Clarington, Ontario, CanadaAround 200,000 litres of water with trace amounts of radioactive isotope tritium coming from a storage tank mistakenly were released by workers into Lake Ontario, representing 0.1% of the monthly allowed amounts of tritium for this power plant.[30][31]0Unknown.March 14, 2011Pickering nuclear Plant A Pickering, Ontario, CanadaA leak of 73 cubic metres (73,000 litres) of demineralized water into Lake Ontario from a failed pump seal. There was negligible risk to the public according to the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission.[32][33]0Unknown.

France

Nuclear power accidents in France[7][34]DateLocationDescriptionFatalitiesCost

(in millions

2006 US$)INES

rating17 Oct 1969Loir-et-Cher, France50 kg of uranium dioxide melted inside of the A1 nuclear reactor of Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux, during a refueling operation0Unknown (likely far less than the 13 Mar 1980 accident)425 Jul 1979Saclay, FranceRadioactive fluids escaped into drains designed for ordinary wastes, seeping into the local watershed at the Saclay BL3 Reactor0513 Mar 1980Loir-et-Cher, FranceA malfunctioning cooling system fused fuel elements together at the Saint Laurent A2 reactor, melting two fuel assemblys and forcing an extended shutdown022414 Apr 1984Bugey, FranceElectrical cables failed at the command center of the Bugey Nuclear Power Plant and forced a complete shutdown of one reactor0221 May 1986Normandy, FrancePipe maintenance at the fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague released a radioactive solution to which three welders and two plant workers were exposed.[35]0527 Dec 1999Blayais, FranceAn unexpectedly strong stormflooded the Blayais Nuclear Power Plant, forcing an emergency shutdown after injection pumps and containment safety systems failed from water damage055221 Jan 2002Manche, FranceControl systems and safety valves failed after improper installation of condensers, forcing a two-month shutdown010216 May 2004Cattenom-2, Lorraine, FranceSub-standard electrical cable trays at the Cattenom-2 nuclear reactor caused a fire in an electricity tunnel, damaging many safety system cables [36]012113 Jul 2008Tricastin, FranceDozens of litres (thirty cubic meters[37]) of wastewater contaminated with uranium were accidentally poured on the ground and runoff into a nearby river0719 Aug 2009Gravelines, FranceAssembly system failed to properly eject spent fuel rods from the Gravelines Nuclear Power Plant, causing the fuel rods to jam and the defueling operation to be suspended0215 Apr 2012Penly, FranceFire on a primary pump of the second reactor, followed by a small radioactive leak into the containment0?12017France, generic20 reactors of the 1300 MW-class with seismic weaknesses on their emergency diesel generators0?2

Germany

Nuclear power accidents in Germany[7][34]DateLocationDescriptionFatalitiesCost

(in millions

2006 US$ million)INES1975Greifswald, East GermanyA near core meltdown at Greifswald Nuclear Power Plant: Three out of six cooling water pumps were switched off for a failed test. A fourth pump broke down by loss of electric power and control of the reactor was lost. 10 fuel elements were slightly damaged before recovery0?34 May 1986Hamm-Uentrop, GermanyOperator actions to dislodge damaged fuel elements at the Thorium high-temperature reactor released radioactivity to 4 km2 surrounding the facility0267?17 Dec 1987Hessen, GermanyStop valve failed for a moment at Biblis Nuclear Power Plant; contamination of local area in the reactor building013

India

Nuclear power accidents in India[7][34]DateLocationDescriptionFatalitiesCost

(in millions

2006 US$)4 May 1987Kalpakkam, IndiaFast Breeder Test Reactor at Kalpakkam refuelling accident that ruptures the reactor core, resulting in a two-year shutdown030010 Sep 1989Tarapur, Maharashtra, IndiaOperators at the Tarapur Atomic Power Station find that the reactor had been leaking radioactive iodine at more than 700 times normal levels. Repairs to the reactor take more than a year07813 May 1992Tarapur, Maharashtra, IndiaA malfunctioning tube causes the Tarapur Atomic Power Station to release 12 curies of radioactivity0231 Mar 1993Bulandshahr, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaThe Narora Atomic Power Station suffers a fire at two of its steam turbine blades, damaging the heavy water reactor and almost leading to a meltdown02202 Feb 1995Kota, Rajasthan, IndiaThe Rajasthan Atomic Power Station leaks radioactive helium and heavy water into the Rana Pratap Sagar River, necessitating a two-year shutdown for repairsN/A28022 Oct 2002Kalpakkam, IndiaAlmost 100 kg radioactive sodium at the fast breeder reactor leaks into a purification cabin, ruining a number of valves and operating systems030

Japan

See also: Timeline of the Fukushima nuclear accidents and Nuclear power in Japan

Nuclear power accidents in JapanDateLocationDescriptionFatalitiesCost

(in millions

2006 US$)INES

rating8 Jan 1975Mihama, JapanRadioactivity released from Mihama nuclear power plant.[38]02 Nov 1978Fukushima No I, JapanJapan's first criticality accident at No 3 reactor, this accident was hidden for 29 years and reported on 22 Mar 200702 Apr 1979Tokaimura, JapanTwo workers suffer radioactive contamination at the Tokaimura complex.[38]024–28 Jan 1981Tsuruga, Japan29 workers were exposed to radiation.[39]08 Mar 1981Tsuruga, Japan56 workers were exposed to about 45 tonnes of radioactive waste which spilled from storage tanks at the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Plant. The waste was cleaned up with buckets and mops,[40][41] and was also discharged into Tsuruga Bay via the town sewer.[39] At the time, the plant had recorded 30 malfunctions since it was commissioned in 1970.[42]031 Aug 1985Fukushima, JapanFire at Fukushima nuclear power plant during routine shutdown.[38]023 Jun 1986Tokaimura, JapanTwelve people suffer "slight" plutonium contamination while inspecting a storeroom.[38]08 Feb 1991Fukui, JapanRadioactivity was released from Mihama nuclear power plant after an emergency release valve failed.[38] Officials said the release "did not pose a threat to humans or the environment."[43]022 Feb 1993Fukushima, JapanHigh-pressure steam accident kills one worker and injures two others.[38]1December 1995Tsuruga, JapanThe fast breeder Monju Nuclear Power Plant sodium leak.[40] State-run operator Donen was found to have concealed videotape footage that showed extensive damage to the reactor.[44]011 March 1997Tokaimura, JapanThe Tokaimura nuclear reprocessing plant fire and explosion. 37 workers were exposed to low doses of radiation. Donen later acknowledged it had initially suppressed information about the fire.[40][44]018 Jun 1999Shika, JapanWrong handling of some control rods set off an uncontrolled nuclear reaction.[40]0230 Sept 1999Tokaimura, JapanThe criticality accident at the Tokai fuel fabrication facility.[40] Hundreds of people were exposed to radiation and two workers later died. This is not a nuclear power plant accident, however.[44]242002Onagawa, JapanTwo workers were exposed to a small amount of radiation and suffered minor burns during a fire.[44]09 Aug 2004Mihama, JapanA main piping burst in the turbine building of the Mihama-3 station and killed persons present there; the subsequent investigation revealed a serious lack in systematic inspection in Japanese nuclear plants, which led to a massive inspection program.[45]512006Fukushima No1, JapanA small amount of radioactive steam was released at the Fukushima Dai-ichi plant and it escaped the compound.[44]016 Jul 2007Kashiwazaki, JapanA severe earthquake (measuring 6.8 on the Richter magnitude scale) hit the region where Tokyo Electric's Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant is located and radioactive water spilled into the Sea of Japan; as of March 2009, all of the reactors remained shut down for damage verification and repairs. The plant with seven units is the largest single nuclear power station in the world, which now again is shut down due to the Fukushima accident.[45]01Dec 2009Hamaoka, JapanLeakage accident of radioactive water. 34 workers were exposed to radiation0Mar 2011Fukushima Dai-ichi, JapanThe world's second INES 7 accident. A magnitude 9.0 earthquake and associated tsunami triggered cooling problems at Fukushima 1 & 2 stations with several reactors. Loss of coolant resulted in meltdowns in three units and hydrogen explosions caused their structural damage. Radioactive steam was released into the atmosphere, and highly radioactive water spilled into the ocean through utility trenches. Some immediate injuries resulted. 117 workers received committed effective doses above 100 mSv, and 6 workers received doses above the emergency dose limit of 250 mSv.[46]2+;[47] further near 1,600 died from indirect causes[48]1,200 - 2,10076 June 2017Ibaraki PrefectureThe incident occurred at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency's Oarai Research and Development Center, after a bag containing radioactive material tore open while a check on radioactive storage inside a "controlled" room was performed. It resulted in internal radiation exposure in five workers, with one of them inhaling plutonium. However, no radiation was detected in the external environment.[49][50]0

Pakistan

Nuclear power accidents in Pakistan[51]DateLocationDescriptionFatalitiesCost

(in millions

2006 US$)18 October 2011Karachi, PakistanThe KANUPP Karachi nuclear power plant imposed a seven-hour emergency after heavy water leaked from a feeder pipe to the reactor. The leakage took place during a routine maintenance shut down, and the emergency was lifted seven hours later, after the affected area was isolated.[51]0N/A

Russia

Nuclear power accidents in the Russian FederationDateLocationDescriptionFatalitiesCost

(in millions

2006 US$)INES1957Mayak reprocessing plant, Ural-regionKyshtym disaster: Explosion in a waste tank of the plant with a massive radioactive cloud, deteriorating deeply the health of the regions populationThe accident caused nearly 200 late cancer fatalities[52]?61975Leningrad, Soviet unionReactor 1 of the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant suffered a core damage which released radioactivity.0?41992Saint Petersburg, Russian FederationAn RBMK reactor of the Leningrad NPP released radioactivity which traveled over north-eastern Europe. Russian officials declared that they saw no immediate danger posed by the event.[53]0?21997Saint Petersburg, Russian FederationWorker Sergei Kharitonov revealed photographs of cracked walls and groundwater seepage at a nuclear power plant waste storage facility. He also revealed that the plant has been dumping 300 litres of contaminated water into the Gulf of Finland annually "for years".[53]0N/AApril 1998Saint Petersburg, Russian FederationAn RBMK reactor was shut down following the discovery of a radiation leak.[53]Autumn 2017Ural-region, Russian FederationRoshydromet had issued report stated rise in beta activity of aerosoles and surfaces at all monitoring posts in South Ural from 25th Sep to 1 Oct 2017. In two aerosol samples Ru-106 activity increase was detected. At 26th and 27th Sep Ru-106 decay products was detected in Tatarstan republic. At 27th and 28th Sep high pollution levels of aerosoles and surfaces was detected in Volgograd and Rostov-on-Don. In two aerosol samples from Chelyabinsk Oblast 986- and 440-fold activity increase was measured comparing to preceding month[54] The Mayak nuclear plant is widely suspected as the source of the radiation.[55]August 2019Arkhangelsk regionOn August 9, 2019 an explosion triggered radiation levels to rise near Nyonoksa, which was later confirmed by Russia's nuclear energy agency as an accident while testing an isotope power source for a liquid-fuelled rocket engine. Five nuclear scientists had died and three suffered from burns. Russian authorities ordered the evacuation of the village nearing the blast site, suggesting grave dangers due to nuclear radiation.[56]5

South Korea

Nuclear power accidents in South Korea[57]DateLocationDescriptionFatalitiesCost

(in millions

2006 US$)4 October 1999Wolsung, South Korea22 workers employed by the Korea Electric Power Corp were exposed to radioactive liquid and gas at the Wolsung-3 reactor. Two workers were initially exposed when approximately 12 gallons of heavy water leaked during pipe maintenance. A further 20 workers were exposed during clean-up operations.[57]

Switzerland

Nuclear power accidents in SwitzerlandDateLocationDescriptionFatalitiesCostINESJanuary 1969Lucens, SwitzerlandMelting of a fuel element of the protoptype power reactor (6 Megawatts el.) VAK Lucens0?4

Taiwan

Nuclear power accidents in TaiwanDateLocationDescriptionFatalitiesCostINESMarch 2001Maanshan, South Taiwan2-hour-Station Blackout in one of the two units of Maanshan Nuclear Power Plant due to a grounding fault (Common cause failure) to the two available emergency diesel buses0?3

Ukraine

Nuclear power accidents in Ukraine[7][34]DateLocationDescriptionFatalitiesCost

(in millions

2006 US$)INES26 Apr 1986Pripyat, Ukraine, USSRSteam explosion and meltdown (see Chernobyl disaster) necessitating the evacuation of 100,000 people from the region and dispersing radioactive material across Europe (see Effects of the Chernobyl disaster)Around 50 directly (radiation sickness), eventually as many as 4000 (mainly cancers)[58]67007October 1999Pripyat, UkraineMetal structures broke, causing a gamma ray source to fall out of its container and expose two workers to "high" levels of radiation. The reactor was subsequently shut down until November.[53]

United Kingdom

Nuclear accidents in the UK[7][34]DateLocationDescriptionVictimsCost

(in millions

2006 US$)INES

ratingSpring, 1957Windscale (now Sellafield), UKRadioactivity release from a military reactor contaminated about 800 farms and introduced strontium 90 to domestic milk supply. Milk was sold to the public without any warnings.[59]8 Oct 1957Windscale/Sellafield, UKFire ignited plutonium piles of a military reactor, contaminating surrounding dairy farms with radioactive releases of mainly iodine and in lesser amounts cesium and strontium.[59][60]The two accidents of 1957 caused around 240 cancers[61]785May 1967Scotland, United KingdomMelting of fuel element at Dumfries and Galloway. Graphite debris partially blocked a fuel channel causing a fuel element to melt and catch fire at the Chapelcross nuclear power station. Contamination was confined to the reactor core. The core was repaired and restarted in 1969, operating until the plant's shutdown in 2004.[62][63]May 1977Dounreay, Scotland, UKA hydrogen explosion at the plant caused by a reaction of potassium and sodium. This furthermore resulted in a concrete slab being destroyed, and the debris being scattered around the facility.Sep 1996Dounreay, Scotland, UKA fuel reprocessing plant was shut down after elevated radiation levels were detected in waste-water discharged to the sea.[64]Feb 1998Sellafield, UKTwo workers exposed to radiation due to a leak from a damaged bag containing a nuclear filter.[65]19 Apr 2005Sellafield, UK20 tonnes uranium and 160 kg plutonium leak from a cracked pipe at the THORP nuclear fuel reprocessing plant0653[66]July until November and further on 2019/2020Sellafield, UKLoss of radioactive liquid into the ground from a waste silo which contains cladding materials from the closed old Magnox reactors. Thereby, limits are surpassed. Cleanup-measures are on the way.[67]0?2

United States

Main article: Nuclear reactor accidents in the United States


Nuclear power accidents in USADateLocationDescriptionFatalitiesCost

(in millions

2006 US$)INESNovember 29, 1955Idaho Falls, Idaho, USAPower excursion with partial core meltdown at National Reactor Testing Station's EBR-1 Experimental Breeder Reactor I05July 26, 1959Simi Valley, California, USAPartial core meltdown at Santa Susana Field Laboratory’s Sodium Reactor Experiment032January 3, 1961Idaho Falls, Idaho, USAExplosion at National Reactor Testing Station's SL-1 Stationary Low-Power Reactor Number One3224October 5, 1966Monroe, Michigan, USASodium cooling system malfunctions at Enrico Fermi demonstration breeder reactor causing some fuel elements to melt0194August 11, 1973Palisades, Michigan, USASteam generator leak causes manual shutdown of pressurized water reactor010March 22, 1975Browns Ferry, Alabama, USAFire burns for seven hours and damages more than 1600 control cables for one of the three nuclear reactors at Browns Ferry, disabling core cooling systems02403November 5, 1975Brownsville, Nebraska, USAHydrogen gas explosion damages the Cooper Nuclear Station’s auxiliary building013June 10, 1977Waterford, Connecticut, USAHydrogen gas explosion damages three buildings and forces shutdown of Millstone-1 Boiling Water Reactor015February 4, 1979Surry, Virginia, USASurry Unit 2 shut down in response to failing tube bundles in steam generators012March 28, 1979Middletown, Pennsylvania, USALoss of coolant and partial core meltdown, see Three Mile Island accident and Three Mile Island accident health effects02,4005October 17, 1981Buchanan, New York, USA100,000 gallons of Hudson River water leaked into the Indian Point Energy Center Unit 2 containment building from the fan cooling unit, undetected by a safety device designed to detect hot water. The flooding, covering the first 9 feet of the reactor vessel, was discovered when technicians entered the building. Two pumps which should have removed the water were found to be inoperative. NRC proposed a $210,000 fine for the incident.[68]0January 25, 1982Rochester, New York, USASteam generator-leak at the Ginna Nuclear Generating Station causes extensive injection of the high pressure emergency core cooling system0?March 20, 1982Lycoming, New York, USARecirculation system piping fails at Nine Mile Point Unit 1, forcing two year shutdown045March 25, 1982Buchanan, New York, USADamage to steam generator tubes and main generator resulting in a shut down Indian Point Energy Center Unit 3 for more than a year056June 18, 1982Senaca, South Carolina, USAFeedwater heat extraction line fails at Oconee 2 Pressurised Water Reactor, damaging thermal cooling system010February 12, 1983Forked River, New Jersey, USAOyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant fails safety inspection, forced to shut down for repairs032February 26, 1983Fort Pierce, Florida, USADamaged thermal shield and core barrel support at St Lucie Unit 1, necessitating 13-month shutdown054September 15, 1984Athens, Alabama, USASafety violations, operator error, and design problems force six year outage at Browns Ferry Unit 20110March 9, 1985Athens, Alabama, USAInstrumentation systems malfunction during start-up, which led to suspension of operations at all three Browns Ferry Units01,830April 11, 1986Plymouth, Massachusetts, USARecurring equipment problems force emergency shutdown of Boston Edison's Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant01,0011986Surry, Virginia, USABroken Feedwater pipe at Surry Nuclear Power Plant kills 44?March 31, 1987Delta, Pennsylvania, USAPeach Bottom units 2 and 3 shutdown due to cooling malfunctions and unexplained equipment problems0400December 19, 1987Lycoming, New York, USAMalfunctions force Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation to shut down Nine Mile Point Unit 10150September 10, 1988Surry, Virginia, USARefuelling cavity seal fails and destroys internal pipe system at Surry Unit 2, forcing 12-month outage09March 5, 1989Tonopah, Arizona, USAAtmospheric dump valves fail at Palo Verde Unit 1, leading to main transformer fire and emergency shutdown014March 17, 1989Lusby, Maryland, USAInspections at Calvert Cliff Units 1 and 2 reveal cracks at pressurized heater sleeves, forcing extended shutdowns0120November 17, 1991Scriba, New York, USASafety and fire problems force shut down of the FitzPatrick nuclear reactor for 13 months05April 21, 1992Southport, North Carolina, USANRC forces shut down of Brunswick Units 1 and 2 after emergency diesel generators fail02February 3, 1993Bay City, Texas, USAAuxiliary feed-water pumps fail at South Texas Project Units 1 and 2, prompting rapid shutdown of both reactors03February 27, 1993Buchanan, New York, USANew York Power Authority shuts down Indian Point Energy Center Unit 3 after AMSAC system fails02March 2, 1993Soddy-Daisy, Tennessee, USAEquipment failures and broken pipes cause shut down of Sequoyah Unit 103December 25, 1993Newport, Michigan, USAShut down of Fermi Unit 2 after main turbine experienced major failure due to improper maintenance06714 January 1995Wiscasset, Maine, USASteam generator tubes unexpectedly crack at Maine Yankee nuclear reactor; shut down of the facility for a year062May 16, 1995Salem, New Jersey, USAVentilation systems fail at Salem Units 1 and 2034February 20, 1996Connecticut, USALeaking valve forces shutdown Millstone Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2, multiple equipment failures found0254September 2, 1996Crystal River, Florida, USABalance-of-plant equipment malfunction forces shutdown and extensive repairs at Crystal River Unit 30384September 5, 1996Clinton, Illinois, USAReactor recirculation pump fails, prompting shut down of Clinton boiling water reactor038September 20, 1996Senaca, Illinois, USAService water system fails and results in closure of LaSalle Units 1 and 2 for more than 2 years071September 9, 1997Bridgman, Michigan, USAIce condenser containment systems fail at Cook Units 1 and 2011May 25, 1999Waterford, Connecticut, USASteam leak in feed-water heater causes manual shutdown and damage to control board annunciator at the Millstone Nuclear Power Plant07September 29, 1999Lower Alloways Creek, New Jersey, USAMajor Freon leak at Hope Creek Nuclear Facility causes ventilation train chiller to trip, releasing toxic gas and damaging the cooling system02February 16, 2002Oak Harbor, Ohio, USASevere corrosion of control rod drives in the reactor head forces 24-month outage of Davis-Besse reactor0143January 15, 2003Bridgman, Michigan, USAA fault in the main transformer at the Donald C. Cook nuclear power plant causes a fire that damages the main generator and back-up turbines010June 16, 2005Braidwood, Illinois, USAExelon's Braidwood Nuclear Generating Station leaks tritium and contaminates local water supplies041August 4, 2005Buchanan, New York, USAEntergy's Indian Point Energy Center Nuclear Plant leaks tritium and strontium into underground lakes from 1974 to 200530March 6, 2006Erwin, Tennessee, USANuclear fuel services plant spills 35 litres of highly enriched uranium, necessitating 7-month shutdown098November 21, 2009Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USATwelve workers were contaminated after radioactive dust was mobilized at the Three Mile Island plant during pipe maintenance works.[69]0January 7, 2010Buchanan, New York, USANRC inspectors reported that an estimated 600,000 gallons of mildly radioactive steam was intentionally vented after an automatic shutdown of Indian Point Energy Center Unit 2. The levels of tritium in the steam were below those allowable by NRC safety standards.[70]00February 1, 2010Vernon, Vermont, USADeteriorating underground pipes from the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant leak radioactive tritium into groundwater supplies0700August 2011Louisa county, Virginia, USAA 5.8-earthquake in the region caused the loss of offsite power at the North Anna Nuclear Generating Station. Later in the incident, the plant lost an emergency diesel generator, leading to the activation of the so-called SBO diesel generator - an emergency situation.0?2January 2014St. Lucie, Florida, USAFlooding of the auxiliary building of the St. Lucie Nuclear Power Plant, caused by lacking proper flood barriers[71]0?July 2016Michigan, USAMassive steam leak in the turbine building of Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, unit 20?December 2019Nebraska, USAOne of the two safety related component cooling systems of Cooper Nuclear Station was unable to operate, because its service water system, that takes water from the river, was plugged with silt.[72]


Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_nuclear_power_accidents_by_country



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