Warning to PH: Tibetan Losing Their Local Language as Schools in Tibet Switched to Mandarin

Pinalitan ng Tsina ng Mandarin ang mga Lengwahe na itinuturo sa Tibet, Dahil Dito namamatay na ang Sariling Lengwahe ng mga taga Tibet. Isang krimen sa Tibet ang pag usapan ang kahalagahan ng sariling wika at lahat ng mag uusap ng kahalagahan ng sariling wika ay inaresto.

A Tibetan protester detained by police during a protest held to mark the 58th anniversary of the Tibetan uprising against Chinese rule, outside the Chinese embassy in New Delhi, India https://www.tibetanreview.net/india-reassured-china-on-ban-on-tibetan-political-activities/


Tibetan Language Diminished as Schools Switch to Mandarin - languagemagazine.com


Tibetan language learning eroded under China's 'bilingual education'- reuters.com


In Tibet, it’s a crime to even talk about the value of mother-tongue education - hrw.org


Why is China so terrified of Tibetan language classes?

Notice warns that monks, monasteries offering free lessons to children during winter break will be punished - savetibet.org


Chinese replacing Tibetan language as medium of instruction in Tibet,- savetibet.org


300 Filipino teachers to undergo training on teaching Mandarin for Public Schools - philstar.com


Removing Filipino in college to lead to 'cultural genocide' - varsitarian.net


Tibetan Language Diminished as Schools Switch to Mandarin

Photo Source: https://tibet.net/tibetan-schoolchildren-lose-fluency-in-native-language-as-schools-switch-to-mandarin/


Children in the Tibetan Autonomous Region are losing fluency in the Tibetan language as schools in the region are increasingly teaching subjects in Mandarin on Chinese government orders, according to Radio Free Asia.

China formally introduced a policy of “bilingual education” in 2010 for schools in all minority areas in China, an approach to minority education considered appropriate internationally when it promotes competency in both the local and the national language. The official position of the TAR authorities is that both Tibetan and Chinese languages should be “promoted,” leaving individual schools to decide which language to prioritize as the teaching medium.

According to an anonymous source Tibet in Shigatse (Chinese Rìkāzé) the switch to Mandarin in primary and middle schools had resulted in reduced competency in Tibetan due to diminished usage.

“After school is over even, the students prefer to use Chinese instead of Tibetan, even in their daily conversations,” the source said.

“As such, the standard of the Tibetan language of Tibetan kids is very poor.”

Another source, a mother who requested anonymity, told RFA, “For tests and exams, the children are more inclined to get better grades in Chinese and other subjects, with little care or attention to Tibetan.”

“This trend of Chinese priority over Tibetan is worrying to us,” she said.

In an Op-ed piece published in the Los Angeles Times, HRW’s China Director Sophia Richardson wrote, “Ordinary Tibetans have expressed widespread concern about the increasing loss of fluency in Tibetan among the younger generation as a result of changing school policies.”

“While many favor Tibetan children learning both languages, there is considerable opposition to Chinese authorities’ approach, which erodes the Tibetan language skills of children and forces them to consume political ideology and ideas largely contrary to those of their parents and community,” she added.

A source who requested anonymity in Tsang, the region west of Lhasa that is considered the Tibetan cultural heartland, said, “It is true that Chinese has become the lingua franca in Tsang, and Tibetan students are becoming more interested in Chinese, so the Chinese language is widely used among the students.”

A primary teacher in Tsang Thong county middle school in Central Tibet was quoted by the Tibet Times as saying, “A few days ago some of my close students informed me via phone that the school started teaching math and physics in Chinese.”

“When the news hit my ear I was very surprised, anxious and felt deeply sad,” said the teacher.

A March 5, 2020 report by Human Rights Watch details a growing emphasis on Chinese-language schooling in Tibet, calling the trend “an assimilationist policy for minorities that has gained momentum under President Xi Jinping’s leadership.”

Tibetans already endure pervasive restrictions on their rights to free speech and religious belief, political participation and cultural expression. Since China’s “bilingual education” policies were formally introduced in 2010, Tibetans have repeatedly protested against them, mostly in Qinghai province in northwestern China. They have also demonstrated virtually by publishing online letters and petitions.


Source: https://www.languagemagazine.com/2020/04/23/tibetan-language-phased-out-as-schools-switch-to-mandarin/


Tibetan language learning eroded under China's 'bilingual education': rights group

Photo Source: https://www.tibetanreview.net/tibetan-prefecture-orders-schools-to-switch-to-chinese-medium-this-fall/


China is eroding access to Tibetan language learning and resources in the Tibet Autonomous Region while carrying out so-called “bilingual education”, according to a new report from Human Rights Watch.

China, while ensuring its minority Tibetan community gets education in their native tongue, has sidelined Tibetan-language classes by making Mandarin Chinese the primary language of instruction, said the report released on Thursday.

In 2002, the Tibet Autonomous Region’s government issued decrees that bilingual education meant Chinese and Tibetan were to be given “equal weight,” but that wording has now disappeared from official messaging.

China has started pushing bilingual education in recent years, while remaining vague in its public-facing comments on what bilingual education actually means, the report said.

By 2017, the entire Tibet Autonomous Region was carrying out “bilingual education.”

In practice, this policy means Chinese is the main medium of instruction, with only one class dedicated to Tibetan, the rights group said, adding that the next generations’ fluency in Tibetan was at risk.


“The promotion of Putonghua (Mandarin Chinese) among Tibetan communities is really problematic and has had a really profound impact on their identity, their language practices, and their ability to practice their culture,” said Gerald Roche, a senior research fellow at La Trobe University in Australia, unaffiliated with the group.

Switching to Chinese-medium instruction in western Qinghai province, where ethnic Tibetans also live in large numbers, has led to sporadic protests against the government. In 2018, China sentenced a Tibetan-language advocate from Qinghai to five years prison on charges of “inciting separatism.”

The Tibetan Autonomous Regional government and China’s Ministry of Education did not immediately reply to faxed requests for comment.


Source: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-education-tibet/tibetan-language-learning-eroded-under-chinas-bilingual-education-rights-group-idUSKBN20S13W


In Tibet, it’s a crime to even talk about the value of mother-tongue education

A year ago February, authorities in the highly restrictive Tibet Autonomous Region of China picked up Tsering Dorje, who lived in a village near Mt. Everest. They held him for a month in what they told him was a “reeducation facility,” where he says he was interrogated and beaten.

Dorje’s “crime”? A phone call with his brother, who lives outside China, in which they discussed the importance of Tibetan language instruction for their children. The local police who had intercepted the call told his family that such a conversation was a “political crime.”

Since the 1960s, Chinese has been the language of instruction in nearly all middle and high schools in the region, where nearly half of Tibetans live. But new Human Rights Watch research shows that practices introduced over the last decade by the regional government are leading more primary schools and even kindergartens to use Chinese as the teaching language for Tibetan students. This appears to have become the norm for primary schools in Tibetan urban areas and the practice is spreading to the countryside.

Chinese authorities’ hostility toward ethnic and religious minorities is well-documented. One key feature of Beijing’s notorious “political education” camps in the western region of Xinjiang — where about 1 million Uighurs and other Turkic Muslims are arbitrarily detained — is mandatory Chinese language study. The government of China’s president, Xi Jinping, has provided ample evidence of its intent to hollow out distinct cultures through repression and persecution and remake the residents into loyal servants of the Chinese Communist Party.

China formally introduced a policy of “bilingual education” in 2010 for schools in all minority areas in China, an approach to minority education considered appropriate internationally when it promotes competency in both the local and the national language. The official position of the regional authorities is that both the Tibetan and Chinese languages should be “promoted,” leaving individual schools to decide which language to make a priority as the teaching medium.

But those schools are increasingly staffed by non-Tibetan-speaking teachers, have virtually no Tibetan textbooks and have isolated the use of Tibetan to Tibetan-language classes. As a former part-time teacher from Lhasa, the capital of the Tibetan Autonomous Region, told Human Rights Watch: “In primary school, the Tibetan teachers … have a strong urgency to teach Tibetan, but the biggest problem is that they lack methods and materials.”

Other policies have contributed to the demise of education in the Tibetan language. In “mixed classes” non-Tibetan pupils are instructed along with Tibetan students. “Concentrated schooling,” which involves consolidating local schools into a boarding school, brings educational benefits in terms of diversity, facilities and standards. But the boarding schools also reduce children’s contact with their families and with a Tibetan-speaking environment.

Authorities insist that Tibet’s “stability” rests on the success of “ethnic mingling” and “identification” policies that place a far higher premium on political loyalty to the Chinese Communist Party than they do education or cultural rights.

Ordinary Tibetans have expressed widespread concern about the increasing loss of fluency in Tibetan among the younger generation as a result of changing school policies. While many favor Tibetan children learning both languages, there is considerable opposition to Chinese authorities’ approach, which erodes the Tibetan language skills of children and forces them to consume political ideology and ideas largely contrary to those of their parents and community.

These policies are not carried out in a vacuum. Tibetans already endure pervasive restrictions on their rights to free speech and religious belief, political participation and cultural expression. Since China’s “bilingual education” policies were formally introduced in 2010, Tibetans have repeatedly protested against them, mostly in Qinghai province in northwestern China. They have also demonstrated virtually by publishing online letters and petitions.

Twice in 2015, Tibetan language-rights campaigner Tashi Wangchuk tried to file formal complaints in Beijing concerning the absence of Tibetan-language teaching in his area. He was detained in early 2016 after the New York Times interviewed him about his advocacy efforts. When he was sentenced to five years in prison, the court said he was guilty of “inciting separatism.”

In early 2018, regional police in China issued a public notice that declared organizations campaigning on “mother tongue” issues illegal and a form of “underworld gang crime.”

Since 1996, three United Nations human rights expert committees have repeatedly expressed concern over China’s disingenuous claims that the country is providing truly bilingual education. The committees have also repeatedly urged China’s government to make sure that Tibetan children are able to learn in their own language — and to protect those who advocate for mother-tongue education. But during this same period, Chinese authorities have steadily eroded that right and criminalized efforts to realize it.

Unless concerned governments step in and successfully pressure Beijing to reverse these policies, more Tibetans will pay an extremely high price for trying to keep their language — their identity — alive.


Source: https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/04/15/tibet-its-crime-even-talk-about-value-mother-tongue-education


Why is China so terrified of Tibetan language classes?

Notice warns that monks, monasteries offering free lessons to children during winter break will be punished

The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) recently banned Tibetan monasteries from offering Tibetan language classes, prompting international human rights organizations to request that Beijing lift the unreasonable ban.

On Dec. 25, the United Front Work Department (UFWD) of the Nangqian County Party Committee in Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, in China's southwestern Qinghai province, issued an urgent notice to all party committees, local governments and monastery management committees in townships and villages across the county.

It noted the winter vacation was approaching for primary and secondary schools and cautioned that illegal Tibetan language classes in monasteries were on the rise.

To curb this, townships were instructed to strengthen their sense of urgency, improve the way monasteries are organized and roll out measures to rectify the situation.

Monasteries in the region have also been ordered to hang up portraits of party heroes like Mao Zedong or face punishment.


Source: https://international.la-croix.com/news/why-is-china-so-terrified-of-tibetan-language-classes/9591


Chinese replacing Tibetan language as medium of instruction in Tibet, report says


Photo Source: https://freetibet.org/news-media/na/china-introduces-new-textbook-tibetan-children-beijing-urges-unity


Nearly all middle schools and high schools in the Tibet Autonomous Region have been teaching students in Chinese since shortly after China annexed Tibet, a historically independent country, in 1959, says the report.

But according to the report—titled “China’s ‘Bilingual Education’ Policy in Tibet: Tibetan Medium Schooling Under Threat”—new education policies introduced by the Chinese government are now also leading kindergartens and elementary schools in the TAR to teach students in Chinese instead of Tibetan. The TAR spans about half of Tibet, including most of western and central Tibet.

The change in teaching language will likely hurt students’ development, as evidence shows that children are negatively impacted when their early education is not in their mother tongue.

Perhaps just as bad, the new policies seem aimed at indoctrinating children with Chinese propaganda from a young age and cutting them off from Tibetan culture and history.

“China’s policies for Tibetan children in the TAR … show decreasing respect for their right to use their mother-tongue or learn about and freely express Tibetan cultural identity and values in schools,” the report says. “Rather, they embody an approach to schools and schoolchildren that appears to be eroding the Tibetan language skills of children and forcing them to consume political ideology and ideas contrary to those of their parents and community.”


Source: https://savetibet.org/chinese-replacing-tibetan-language-as-medium-of-instruction-in-tibet-report-says/


300 Filipino teachers to undergo training on teaching Mandarin

The Department of Education (DepEd) has partnered with the Confucius Institute to train 300 Filipino teachers on teaching Mandarin.

The DepEd said a memorandum of agreement was signed for the joint training of public school teachers for Master of Arts in Education, Major in Chinese Language Teaching (MAEd CLT).

The program aims to support the sustainable development of the Special Program in Foreign Language (SPFL)-Chinese Mandarin in public secondary schools.

The program, which targets to upskill 300 teachers in the next five years, will be implemented by the Angeles University Foundation of the Philippines and Fujian Normal University of China.

The MAEd CLT scholarship is designed for SPFL Mandarin teachers to enhance their language proficiency and their pedagogical skills in teaching Chinese Mandarin as a foreign language, according to the DepEd.

Chinese embassy cultural counselor Tian Shanting lauded the DepEd for including Chinese Mandarin in the SPFL, noting that the agency is one of the key contributors in the promotion of friendly relations between the peoples of the Philippines and China.

In 2011, Chinese Mandarin was included in the SPFL of the DepEd through the partnership between the Confucius Institute and the Angeles University Foundation in Pampanga.

Some 310 Filipino teachers have been trained to teach Chinese Mandarin, according to the DepEd.

About 11,000 students from 93 public high schools have already studied Chinese Mandarin through the special program, it added.

Source: https://www.philstar.com/headlines/2019/12/15/1977078/300-filipino-teachers-undergo-training-teaching-mandarin

Removing Filipino in college to lead to 'cultural genocide' - group

Photo Source: https://varsitarian.net/news/20181215/compromise-on-keeping-filipino-subjects-eyed

A group of Filipino and Panitikan advocates warned Chief Justice Lucas Bersamin of dire consequences should the Supreme Court stick to its ruling affirming the exclusion of Filipino and Panitikan as core subjects from the college curriculum.

In its letter, the group Alyansa ng Mga Tagapagtanggol ng Wikang Filipino (Tanggol Wika) said if the high court affirms its decision, “Filipino and Panitikan will not only be killed as mandatory subjects in college, but Filipino will also be murdered as an effective medium of instruction.”

It said this will go against the Constitution’s “well-defined mandate for Filipino as medium of instruction at all levels of education.”

“We hope to still move the heavens and the earth to stop this imminent cultural genocide, the impending murder of our national language and local literature,” the group added, acknowledging that they filed the letter instead of filing a second motion for reconsideration, which is prohibited under Court rules.

The Supreme Court, in a unanimous vote in October last year, upheld the constitutionality of the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) Memorandum Order No. 20 (CMO 20) which removed Filipino and Panitikan subjects as part of the core college curriculum.

Anti-Filipino? Wrong, says CHED on Panitikan, Filipino exclusion

It upheld its ruling in a resolution dated March 5 this year saying CMO 20 did not violate the 1987 Constitution because it merely transferred these subjects to the curriculum of elementary and high schools.

The Court also ruled CMO only provides for the “minimum standards for the general education component of all degree programs” and does not limit the academic freedom of schools to offer additional courses on these subjects.

But Tanggol Wika said CMO 20 prioritizes the English language over Filipino and Panitikan, noting that the teaching of English language is still required in college.

It said this violates the Constitution which mandates Filipino as the primary official language and English as “merely secondary language.” It added the Constitution itself provides that English’s inclusion as official language may even be removed by law.

“It is a travesty to allow CHED to make a regressive move on language policy, when the Constitution mandates forward action, continuous progress in the process of cultivating the national language,” it said.

The group claimed CHED also ignored the opposition of the Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino and the National Commission for Culture and the Arts.

The group also warned that around 10,000 faculty members will be affected by the expected job cuts while millions of students will be deprived of their chance to expand and deepen their ability to use the national language “in a more intellectual way.”

The group invoked the words of Simoun, a character in national hero Dr. Jose Rizal’s novel “El Filibusterismo,” who castigated those who favored Spanish over Philippine languages.

“One and all you forget that while a people preserves its language, it preserves the marks of its liberty, as a man preserves his independence while he holds to his own way of thinking. Language is the thought of the peoples,” the group said.

The filing of the protest letter was accompanied by a brief protest action by around 20 members of Tanggol Wika.

Source: https://news.abs-cbn.com/news/06/10/19/removing-filipino-in-college-to-lead-to-cultural-genocide-group


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